Pope Julius II- pope from 1503 to 1513. Known as the “Warrior Pope” and for his patronage in the arts of Renaisance Art. He commissioned Michelangelo to create his tomb known (which features “Moses” and the Sistine Chapel


Sistine Chapel- Famous for its architecture and painting which include Michaelangelo’s ceiling (Creation of Man), and Raphael’s School of Athens


Renaissance-The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones. Four Keys to Renaissance; Humanism, Secularism, Rationalism, Individualism


Republic- a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, retain supreme control over the government; no monarch. (Has some form of representation)


Condottiere-A mercenary soldier of a political ruler.


Sigoria- governing authority or lordship in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.


Ciompi- “the wooden shoes.” Rose up in a revolt in Florence in 1378 against the popolo grasso in demands for a voice in the commune's government.


Cosimo de Medici- the first of the Medici political dynasty; established an oligarchy in Florence with his wealth and power; patron of the arts


Lorenzo the Magnificent- grandson of Cosimo de Medici; de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance; patron of scholars, artists and poets.


Petrarch- Father of Humanism; a Tuscan humanist poet during the Renaissance who wrote “Letters to Boccaccio” and “Letters to Laura”.  Known for his expertise in the Latin language, had fondness for Cicero.


Humanism-The recovery and study of classical (Greek & Roman) authors and writings. i.e. Lorenzo Valla (Donation of Constantine document that disproved the authority of the Roman Church


Leonardo da Vinci - described as the true renaissance man because of his diverse talents. Great painter of the renaissance paintings such as The Last Supper, Virgin on the Rocks and the Mona Lisa. His journals inquire ideas beyond his time and his ingenious.


Raphael- Italian painter and architect of the high renaissance. Paintings- School of Athens portrays the 4 renaissance values.

(know about the painting)


Neo-Platonism- modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy based on the teachings of Plato.


Giotto di Bondone- Considered one of the first great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance. Famous for his Scrovegni Chapel in Padua. Often known as Father of Renaissance Art.


Perspective- a development in Renaissance art which shows depth, vanishing point.


High Renaissance- Quite literally the high point of the Renaissance. When the most influential works were produced - i.e. Leonard's Last Supper. The Creation of Man by Michelangelo.


Mannerism- a type of art that emerged from the later years of the high renaissance artists such as Da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. I.e. Michelangelo's Sistine chapel ceiling. 


Peace of Lodi- Brought four decades of peace to the Italian city-states of Florence, Milan, and Naples


Girolamo Savonarola- Italian Dominican friar; He was known for his book burning (Bonfires of the Vanity), destruction of what he considered immoral art, and his perception of what he thought the Renaissance should be – focused on “true” religion.  Eventually burned as a heretic


Niccolo Machiavelli- Renaissance political author; wrote “The Prince” describing how to be a ruler.  (The End Justifies the Means)


Francesco Sforza- Part of the most successful dynasty of the condottieri - he himself was a condottieri. He ruled Milan for the first half of the Renaissance era - Duke of Milan.


Jacob Burchardt- the one we couldn't find.