Chapter 4- Wars of religion


Defenestration of the Prague-The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War

Huguenots- French Calvinists. Edict of Nantes, created by Henry IV, gave Huguenots rights in France. L Rochelle had become the stronghold of Huguenots.

Concordat of Bologna- (1516) Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. Signed between Francis from France and Pope Leo V.

Poor Wretches- group of rebels, who reflect abject poverty and desperation rose up against nobles in central and southern France in 1594-1595, exposed popular belief that violence might restore imagined world of social justice in which wise rulers looked after the needs of people.

Catherine de Medici- (1547-1589) - The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons. She was a strong Catholic, responsible for the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre- (August 24, 1572) Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV). Catherine de Medici was responsible for killing more than 2,000 Protestants.

Politiques-ruler who places political unity above conformity to religious dogma, such as Henry IV and Elizabeth I.

French Catholic League- more extensive than smaller local anti-protestant organizations that sprung up in 1560s, posed threat to Huguenots and monarchy, led by Henry duke of Guise.

Henry of Navarre (IV)-  (1589-1610) - Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism in order to sustain religious toleration. Survived St. Bartholomew Day, signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying "Paris is worth a mass,” and won War of Three Henrys.

War of the 3 Henrys- Fought between Henry of Guise, Henry III, and Henry of Navarre. King Henry of Guise seized Paris and forced King Henry III to make him chief minister which caused King Henry III to assassinate King Henry of Guise and then join sides with Henry of Navarre, in which Henry of Navarre was victorious.

Edict of Nantes- (1598) An edict created by Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France.

Cardinal Richelieu- (1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Destroy the Habsburgs, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.

Thirty Year's War- War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants (and their allies Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor (and his ally, Spanish Catholics). However, the ambitions of French Princes lay behind the rivalry between Protestants and Catholics. It ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia.

Holy Roman Emperor- honorary title given by the Pope to the Christian King that gives that individual the authority to tell other kings what to do in time of war, such as Ferdinand II. Controlled the Habsburg Empire.

Emperor Ferdinand II-  In 1618 he was head of the Hapsburg family. He ruled a protestant Bohemia. When he closed Protestant churches, the people revolted in which he sent an army to crush the revolts. Several German princes then challenged him. Thus began the Thirty Years' War. During the Hapsburg triumphs, 1618-1630, he successfully put down the Czech uprising and defeated the German princes.

German Catholic League- organized by German Catholic princes in 1609, headed by Maximilian of Bavaria, because German Catholic states sought Spanish intervention in dispute over princely succession.

Protestant Union- (1608) alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism. Catholic princes responded with the Catholic League (1609). The two armed camps erupted in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648).

Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate- leader of the protestant union against Ferdinand during the Bohemian part of the Thirty Years War. Lost to Ferdinand in the Battle of White Mountain.

Albert Wallenstein- General appointed by Ferdinand II. He was a catholic and pillaged many lands along the countryside of Bohemia. He was a part of the Thirty Years War of the Danish phase and the imperial army.

Gustavus Adolphus- (1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life at the Battle of Lutzen.  Stabilized Sweden’s economy, built capital with funds garnered from discovery of copper mines.  Created first modern army using cavalry with pistols and sabers.  Known as the Lion of the North.

Axel Oxensternia- right hand man to Gustavus.  , helped accomplish many things such as a reformed government and school system.

Treaty of Westphalia- (1648) Ended Thirty Years; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Lutheran, Calvinist or Catholic