and their meanings

The following chart lists the 6 main themes of the course accompanied by a breakdown of

the kinds of things you should be writing about regarding these themes.





Changes in religious thought and institutions

Secularization of learning and culture

Scientific and technological developments and their consequences

Intellectual and cultural developments and their relationship to social values and political events.

Major trends in literature and the arts

Developments in social, economic, and political thought, including ideologies characterized as "-isms," such as socialism, liberalism, nationalism

Developments in literacy, education and comunication

The diffusion of new intellectual concepts among different social groups

Changes in elite and popular culture, such as the development of new attitudes toward religion, the family, work, and ritual

Impact of global expansion on european culture

Intellectual and cultural developments and their relationship to





The rise and functioning of t

he modern state in its various forms

Relations between Europe and other parts of the world: colonialism, imperialism, decolonization, and global interdependence

The evolution of political elites and the development of political parties, ideologies, and other forms of mass politics

The extension and limitation of rights an liberties (personal, civic, economic, and political); majority and minority political persecutions

The growth and changing forms of nationalism

Forms of political protest, reform and revolution

Relationship between domestic and foreign policies

Efforts to restrain conflict: treaties, balance of power diplomacy, and international organizations

War and civil conflict: origins, developments, technology,and their consequences





The character of and changes in agricultural production and organization

The role of urbanization in transforming cultural values andsocial relationships

The shift in social structures from hierarchical orders to modern social classes: the changing distribution of wealth and poverty

The influence of sanitation and health care practices on society; food supply, diet, famine, disease, and their impact

The development of commercial practices, patterns of mass production and consumption,and their economic and social impact

Changing definitions of and attitudes toward social groups, classes, races, and ethnicities within and outside Europe

The origins, development, and consequences of industrialization

Changes in the demographic structure and reproductive patterns of Europeans: causes and consequences

Gender roles and their influence on work, social structure, family structure, and interest group formation

The growth of competition and interdependence in national and world markets

Private and state roles in economic activity