Dutch Republic DBQ

This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. As you analyze the documents, take into account both the sources of the documents and the authors' points of view. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents; in no case should documents simply be cited and explained in a "laundry list" fashion. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned inthe documents.


1. Identify and analyze the challenges to the security, unity, and prosperity of the Dutch Republic, 1650-1713. Take into account both Dutch and foreign opinions.


Historical Background: In 1650 the Dutch Republic, a political union of seven provinces, was a formidable commercial, financial, and naval power. the wealthiest and most powerful province was Holland, dominated by the influential merchant elite of Amsterdam, the leading banking and trading center in Europe. For the Dutch Republic, the period from 12650 to the Peace of Utrecht (1713) was one of shifting aliances and a series of military conflicts with other European powers.

 Document 1



 Document 2



Document 3



 Dutch Ships Seized by the English


 English Ships Seized by the Dutch


 Document 4

 Sir George Downing, English ambassador to the Dutch Republic, leter tothe English government, 1664
 The government of the Dutch Republic is a shattered and divided thing; the province Holland alone must expect to bear the financial burden in a war because the other provinces are poor.

 Document 5

 Anonymous pamphlet published inthe province of Holland, 1669
 We must make defensive fortifications o n land as well as outfit warships at sea; but we must also try to end the heavy taxes that are most burdensome on our merchants, especially those taxes levied to provide convoys for merchant ships. We who are naturally merchants must have low taxes, peace, and trade as well as protection, and we cannot be turned into soldiers.

 Document 6

 The Treaty of Dover, 1670
 The king of France promises to pay to the king of England two million livres. Each of the allied sovereigns will then jointly declare war on the Dutch Republic. the king of France will defray all expenses of the campaign by land. For the war by sea the king of England will arm at least 70 warships.

 Document 7

 Resolution of the Amsterdam City Council, 1671
 Not only the French monarch but other kings seem more and more to scheme how to ruin what remains of the trade and navigation of the Dutch Republic, and to take over part of it for themselves.

 Document 8

 Konrad Van Beuningen, Dutch ambassador to England, letter to the government of the Dutch Republic, 1672
 England's interest consists in continuing or encouraging war between the Dutch Republic and France. Either these Dutch lands will become permanently a theater of war or they will be overwhelmed or flooded, in either case ruining our commerce.

 Document 9

 The Dutch Republic, government report, 1674
 Differences arose with regard to the election of a military commander to lead the troops. Toward the end of 1671, the mutual distrust among the Dutch provinces hindered deliberations on how to oppose the violent attacks of Louis XIV.

 Document 10

 Political pamphlet published in Amsterdam, 1683
 Other Dutch cities and provinces all too easily consent to a recruitment of thousands of men to fight the French. But who, other than wealthy citizens of Amsterdam, much like a rich milk cow, is to furnish the money?

 Document 11

 Marquis de Pomponne, French ambassador to the Dutch Republic, report to the French government, early 1680's
 The English East India Company has grown larger and causes the Dutch much anxiety. This trade competition was the real cause of the war which broke ou in the 1650's between England and the Dutch Republic. It also caused another war between the Dutch and the king of England in the 1660's

Document 12

National Debt of the Dutch Republic (in guilders)







 Document 13

 Dutch colonial administrator, letter to the directors of the Dutch East India Company, 1705
 The profits of our East Indian trade have turned into losses, the java trade is declining, and the commercial competition from the English, French, Portuguese, Chinese, and Muslims in Asia cannot be checked.

 Document 14

 Englishman resident in the Dutch Republic, letter about the Dutch reaction to losses suffered in the War of the Spanish Succession, 1709
 The cries of widows, orphans, and tender virgins, deprived of their husbands, fathers and young men, prevail. Dutch armies, allied with the English in his war against France, have suffered extremely: they have not a hundred men left in each battalion out of a total of thirty battalions that engaged the French at the beginnig of the war.