Revolutions of 1848

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.

Edmund Burke (1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.

Burschenschaften-Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.

Carbonari- Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815.

Carlsbad Decrees (1819) Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities.

Decembrist-Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early nineteenth century.

Frederick William IV (1840-1861)-King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848.

Francois Guizot (1787-1874)-Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repression led to the revolution of 1848.

Holy Alliance-An alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles.

Louie Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873)-Nephew of Napoleon I; he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848.

Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859)-Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna.

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)-British philosopher who published On Liberty (1859), advocating individual rights against government intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights.

Poor Law of 1834 Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid.

Quadruple Alliance-Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818.

Rotten boroughs-Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament.

Zollverein-Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844.

Repeal of Test Act (1828)-Allowed Protestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office.

Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829)-Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time.

Reform Bill of 1832-Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs.

Slavery-Abolished in the British Empire, 1833.

Factory Act-Limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories

Corn Laws-Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristicratic landholdings.


Michael Bakunin-- (1814-1876) Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. He believed that revolutionary movements should be lead by secret societies who would seize power, destroy the state and create a new social order.

Henry Bessemer-- (1813-1898) Englishman who developed the Bessemer converter, the first efficient method forthe mass production of steel

Louis Blanc--(1811-1882) Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It wasthe first step toward a future socialist society. Advocated the principle of "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs."

Classical liberalism-Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its politi8cal goals were self government (concept ofthe general will); a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire (free trade -- no government interference inthe workings of the economy).

Dialectical materialism-The idea, according to Karl Marx, that change and development in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways.

Domestic system-The manufacture of goods in the household setting, a productdon system that gave way to the factory system.

Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Collaborator with Karl Marx. Engels was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably Das Kapttal (l867).

Roger Fenton--Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War.

J. G. Fichte (1762-1814)-Gerrnan writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.

Charles Fourier (1772-1837)-A leading utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.

Hegelian dialectic-The idea, according to G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831), a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by the antithesis, resuiting in a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis. The process is evolutionary. Marx turned Hegel "upside down" and made class conflict, not ideas, the force driving history forward.

J. G. Herder (1774-1803)-Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.

Thomas Malthus (1776-1834)-English parson whose Essay on Population (1798) argued that population would always increase faster than the food supply.

Karl Marx (1818-1883)-German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development.

Robert Owen (1771-1858) Utopian socialists who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most noteable was New Harmony (1826) which failed.

David Ricardo (1772-1823)-English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth.

William Russell--British journalist who reported the events of the Crimean War first hand for the people at home.

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)-English philosopher who argued that in the difflcuit economic struggle for existence, only the "fittest" would survive.

Flora Tristan (1803-1844)-Soclalist and feminist who called for working women's social and political rights.

Age of Nationalism

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)-Prussian chancellor who engineered a series of wars to unify Germany under his authoritarian rule.

Bundesrat-The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature).

Count Cavour (1810-1861)-Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy.

Francis Deak--(1803-1876) Magyar, who forced Franz Joseph to agree to the Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich) which created the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

Ems Telegram-The carefully edited dispatch by Bismarck to the French ambassador Benedetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor.

Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)-Soldier of fortune who amassed his "Red Shirt" army to bring Naples and Sicily into a unified Italy.

House of Savoy-The Italian dynasty ruling the independent state of Piedmont- Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II.

Indemnity Bill (1867-The bill passed by the German Reichstag that legitimated Bismarck's unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize the army in 1863.

Kulturkampf-Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies.

Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)-Leader of the revisionist socialists, who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. They agreed to work within the framework of the existing government.

Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)-Idealistic patriot devoted to the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states.

Napoleon III (1852-1870)-The former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'état, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire.

Nationalism-The shared belief among peoples of a common heritage, culture, and customs, and speaking a similar language (there may be dialect differences).

Daniel O'Connell--(1775-1847) Irish advocate for the of the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to have repealed the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. His election to Parliament for the passage of the1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for Public Office.

Parnell, Charles Stewart--(1846-1891) elected to Parliament in 1875 he came to prominence by obstructing other legislation to gain a hearing for home rule for Ireland. In 1885 Parnell's party won 86 seats, exactly the number of votes separating the Liberals (335) from the Conservatives (249). This forced Gladstone to announced his support for a HOME RULE BILL.

Realpolitik-The "politics of reality," i.e., the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismarck was a practitioner.

"Red Shirt"-Volunteers in Garibaldi's army.

Reichstag-The lower house of the German Diet, or legislature.

Risorgimento-Italian drive and desire for unity.

Siege of Paris-The four-month Prussian assault on the French capital after Napoleon III's surrender in 1870.

Schleswig-Holstein--Two duchies located south of Denmark. In 1863 Schleswig was annexed by Denmark prompting Bismarck's Danish War.

Treaty of Frankfurt-The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany.

Young Italy-An association under the leadership of Mazzini that urged the unification of the country.


Alexander II (1855-1881)-Reforming czar who emancipated the serfs and introduced some measure of representative local government.

Alexander III (1881-1894-Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia.

Boyar-Russian noble.

Catherine the Great (1762-1796)-An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs.

Church Statute of 1721-A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members (lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to the czar.

Crimean War (1853-1856)-Conflict ostensibly waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia.

Decembrist Revolt-The 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up a constitutional monarchy or a republic. The plot failed, but the ideals remained.

Duma-Russian national legislature.

Emancipation Edict (1861-The imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia and, on paper, freed the peasants. In actuality they were collectively responsible for redemption payments to the government for a number of years.

Father Gapon-Leader of the factory workers who assembled before the czar's palace to petition him on January 1905 (Bloody Sunday).

Ivan the Great-- (1462-1505 )The Slavic Grand Duke of Moscow, he ended nearly 200 years of Mongol domination of his dukedom. From then on he worked at extending his territories, subduing he nobles, and attaining absolute power.

Ivan the Terrible--(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.

Kulak-An independent and propertied Russian farmer.

Mir-Village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the government.

Nicholas II (1894-1917)-The last czar of the Romanov dynasty, whose government collapsed under the pressure of World War 1.

Sofia Perovskiai-The first woman to be executed for a political crime in Russia. She was a member of a militant movement that assassinated Czar Alexander II in 1881.

Pugechev (1726-1775)-Head of the bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convinced Catherine the Great to throw her support to the nobles and cease internal reforms.

Michael Romanov--(1613-16##) In 1613 an assembly of nobels chose Michael as the new czar. For the next 300 years the Romanov family ruled in Russia.

Peter Stolypin (1862-1911)-Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants.

Sergei Witte (1849-1915 )-Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder of the Transiberian Railroad.

Zemstovo-A type of local government with powers to tax and make laws; essentially, a training ground for democracy, dominated by the property-owning class when established in 1864.

Late 19th through 20th Centuries

Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932)-Revisionist German Social Democrat who favored socialist revolution by the ballot rather than the bullet-i.e, by cooperating with the bourgeois members of Parliament and securing electoral victories for his party (the SDP).

"Cat and Mouse Act" (1913)-Law that released suffragettes on hunger strikes from jail and then rearrested and jailed them again.

Conservativc Party-Formerly the Tory Party, headed by Disraeli in the nineteenth century.

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)-British scientist whose Origin of Species (1859) proposed the theory of evolution based on his biological research.

Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)-Leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class. Added the Suez Canal to English overseas holdings.

Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935)-French Jewish army captain unfairly convicted of espionage in a case that lasted from 1894 to 1906.

Fabian Society-Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)-Viennese psychoanalyst whose theory of human personality based on sexual drives shocked Victorian sensibilities.

William Gladstone--1809-1898) English Prime Minister (Liberal) known as the "Grand Old Man." Instituted liberal reforms which were designed to remove long standing abuses without destroying existing institutions. He believed in Home Rule for Ireland. In 1870 he passed the Education Act of 1870 and the Order in Council which replaced patronage as a means of entering civil service with competitive examinations. In 1871 he removed the Anglician religion qualification for faculty positions at Oxford and Cambridge universities and introduced The Ballot act of 1872 which provided for a secret ballot.

Jean Jaures (1859-1914)-French revisionist socialist who was assassinated for his pacifist ideals at the start of World War 1.

Liberal Party-Formerly the Whig Party, headed by Gladstone in the nineteenth century.

Friedrich Nietzeche (1844-1900)-German philosopher and forerunner of the modern existentialist movement; he stressed the role of the Ubermensch or Superman, who would rise above the common herd of mediocrity.

Caroline Norton (1808-1877)-British feminist whose legal persistence resulted in the Married Women s Property Act (1883), which gave married women the same property rights as unmarried women.

Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)-British suffragette and founder of the Women's Social and Political Union.

Parliament Act of 1911-Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters. (realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords).

Paris Commune-The revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war (March-May 1871) with the National Assembly of the newly established Third Republic, set up after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco- Prussian War.

Rerum Novarum (1891-Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism.

Revisionists-Marxists who believed that workers empowered to vote could obtain their ends through democratic means without revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, known as revisionism.

SDP-The Social Democratic Party in Germany, based on Marx's Ideology.

Syllabus of Errors (1864)-Doctrine of Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) that denounced belief in reason and science and attacked "progress, liberalism, and modern civilization."

Syndicalism-The French trade-unionist belief that workers would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society.

Syndicats-French trade unions.

Vatican Council of 1870-Gathering of Catholic church leaders that proclaimed the doctrine of papal infallibility.

World War I

Article 231-Provision of the Versailles Treaty that blamed Germany for World War 1.

Black Hand-The Serbian secret society alleged to be responsible for assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand. (Princeps)

Blank Check-Reference to the full support provided by William II to Austria- Hungary in its conflict with Serbia. Al;so refers to the promise of support given by Russia to Serbia to develop of Slavic state.

Dreadnought-A battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals. Carried 10 300mm guns mounted in 5 turrets.

Dual Monarchy-An 1867 compromise between the Germans of Austria-Bohemia and the Magyars of Germany to resolve the nationalities problem by creating the empire of Austria and the kingdom of Hungary, with a common ministry for finance, foreign affairs, and war.

Encirclement-Before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to acquire "living room" (Lebensraum).

Entente Cordiale-The 1904 "gentleman's agreement" between France and Britain establishing a close understanding.

Fourteen Points-Wilson's peace plans calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, and the right of self-determination for ethnic groups.

Free Trade-An economic theory or policy of the absence of restrictions or tariffs on goods imported into a country. There is no "protection" in the form of tariffs against foreign competition.

Imperialism-The acquisition and administration of colonial areas, usually in the interests of the administering country. (The Second Age of Exploration)

Indemnities-Financial demands placed on loser nations.

League of Nations-A proposal included in Wilson's Fourteen Points to establish an international organization to settle disputes and avoid future wars.

Lusitania-British merchant liner carrying ammunition and passengers that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915. The loss of 139 American lives on board was a factor bringing the United States into World War I.


Moroccan Crises

1. Algecira-The site of the 1906 conference in Spain at which German involvement in Morocco was rebuffed by Britain and France acting in unison.

2. Agatir- The site of the landing of the German gunboat in Morocco in 1911. William II tried to force the French to make concessions to Germany in Africa. Like the first crisis, this one drew Britain and France closer together.


Pan-Slavism-The movement to unite Slavs in the Balkans.

Revanche-The French desire for revenge against Germany for the loss of Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War (1870).

Sarajavo-The Balkan town in the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia where Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne.

Schlieffen Plan-Top-secret German strategy to fight a two-front war against Russia and France. The idea was to invade neutral Belgium for a quick victory against France, and then direct German forces against a more slowly mobilizing Russia.

Self-determination-The ability of an ethnic group to decide how it wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as part of another country.

Social Darwinism-The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.

Three Emperors' League-The 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Russia.

Triple Alliance-The 1882 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy.

Triple Entente-After 1907, the alliance between England, France, and Russia.

Weltpolitik ("world politics")-The policy of making Germany a major global power through an expanding navy and the acquisition of colonies, the dream of William II.

Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)-President of the United States and key figure in the peace conferences following World War I; he intended to make the world "safe for democracy."

Zimmermann telegram-A secret German message to Mexico supporting the Mexican government in regaining Arizona and Texas if the Mexicans declared war on the United States, a factor propelling the United States into World War I in April 1917.

Russian Revolution

Army Order Number 1-An order issued to the Russian military when the provisional government was formed. It deprived officers of their authority and placed power in elected committees of common soldiers. This led to the collapse of army discipline.

Bolshevik-Left-wing, revolutionary Marxists headed by Lenin. (Majority men).

Cheka- The secret police under Lenin and his Communist Party.

Constitutional Democrats-Also known as the Cadets, the party of the liberal bourgeoisie in Russia.

Council of People's Commissars -The new government set up by Lenin following the Red Guard seizure of government buildings on November 6, 1917.

V. I. Lenin (1870-1924)-The Bolshevik leader who made the Marxist revolution in November 1917 and modified orthodox Marxism in doing so.

Menshevik-Right-wing or moderate Marxists willing to cooperate with the bourgeoisie. (minority men)

New Economic Policy -(NEP) Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a tactical retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulate agrarian production.

"Peace, land, and bread"-The promise Lenin made to his supporters on his arrival in April 1917 in Russia after his exile abroad. (In Germany)

Petrograd Soviet-The St. Petersburg, or Petrograd, council of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals who shared power with the provisional government.

Provisional government-The temporary government established after the abdication of Nicholas II (1881-1970), from March until Lenin s takeover In November 1917.

Raputin-An uneducated Siberian preacher (nicknamed Rasputin, the Degenerate ) who claimed to have mysterious healing powers. He could stop the bleeding of Czarina Alexandra's son-possibly through hypnosis-and was thus able to gain influence in the czar's court, much to the dismay of top ministers and aristocrats, who finally arranged for his murder. The czarina's relationship with Rasputin did much to discredit Czar Nicholas's rule.

Red Guards-The Bolshevik armed forces.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)-Pact by which Lenin pulled Russia out of the war with Germany and gave up one third of the Russian population in the western territories.

Leon Trotsky (1879-1940}Lenin s ally who organized and led the Bolshevik military takeover of the provisional government headed by Kerensky, in November 1917.

"Two Tactics for Social Democracy"-The 1905 essay in which Lenin argued that the agrarian and industrial revolutions could be telescoped. It was unnecessary for Russia to become an industrialized nation before the Marxist revolution.

War Communism-The application of total war by the Bolsheviks to the civil war (1918-1920) at home-i.e, requisitioning grain, nationalizing banks and industries, and introducing rationing.

"What Is to Be Done?"-Essay written by Lenin in 1902 that outlined his plan for an elite revolutionary cadre to engineer the communist revolution in agrarian Russia.

Clara Zeikin (1857-1933)-German Marxist who focused on women's issues in the Communist Party.

Between the World Wars

Anschluss-The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.

Appeasement-The making of concessions to an adversary in the hope of avoiding conflict. The term is most often used in reference to the meeting between Hitler and British prime minister Chamberlain in Munich, where agreement was made, in September 1938, to cede the Sudetenland (the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia) to Germany.

Beer Hall Putsch-Hitler's attempt, in 1923, to overthrow the Weimar Republic when he fired his pistol in the ceiling of a Munich beer hall.

Black Shirts-The private army of Mussolini.

Brown Shirts-Hitler's private army of supporters, also known as the SA (Sturm Abteilung).

Crystal Night (Krystallnacht) The November 1938 destruction, by Hitler's brown Shirts and mobs, of Jewish shops, homes, and synagogues.

Dawes Plan (1924)-The provision of U.S. Loans to Germany to help meet reparation payments, which were also reduced.

Enabling Act-Article 48 of the Weimar constitution, which enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying the force of law.

Fascism-The political and economic methods of Mussolini in Italy. The name comes from the fasces or bundle of rods tied around an axe, the symbol of authority in ancient Rome.

Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934-President of Weimar Germany, who appointed Hitler chancellor in 1933; formerly a general in World War I.

Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)-The Nazi leader who came to power legally in Germany in 1933. He set up a totalitarian dictatorship and led Germany into World War II.

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)-Document, signed by fifteen countries, that "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy."

Labor Party-The British party that replaced the Liberals in the early twentieth century and championed greater social equality for the working classes through the efforts of labor unions.

Lateran Agreement (1929)-Pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican and a large sum of money to the church as well.

Locarno Treaty (1925) Pact that secured the frontier between Germany and France and Germany and Belgium. It also provided for mutual assistance by France and Italy if Germany invaded its border countries.

Mein Kampf (My Struggle )- Work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923; the book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non Aryans.

Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)-The founder and leader of the Italian Fascist Party.

National Socialists (Nazis)-The political party of Adolf Hitler.

Nuremberg Laws (1935-Measures that excluded Jews from white-collar professions and from marriage and habitation with non-Jews.

Putsch-Forcible and illegitimate attempt to seize power.

Referendum-A plebiscite: the referring of a matter to the people for a decision.

Spartacists-Left-wing Marxists in Germany who hoped to bring about a proletarian revolution in 1919.

Sudetenland-German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, ceded to Germany in the Hitler- Chamberlain Munich meeting (September 1938).

Third Reich-Name given to Germany during the Nazi regime, between 1933 and 1945. The First Reich (or empire) was from 963 to 1806 (the Holy Roman Empire); the second was from 1871 to 1917 (the reigns of William I and William II).

Totalitarianism-An attempt by government to control a society totally through a dictatorship that employs the modern methods of communication-press, radio, TV-to glorify the state over the individual. Its varieties are Fascism, Nazism, and communism.

Vatican-Independent sovereign state of the pope and the Catholic church, established in Rome In 1929.

Victor Emmanuel III (190~1946)-King of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally.

Washington Conference (1921)-Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States.

Weimer-A reference to the republic of Germany that lasted from 1919 to 1933.

Young Plan (1929) Schedule that set limits to Germany's reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr.


Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) The first chancellor of West Germany; he was able to establish a stable democratic government.

Algerian Liberation Movement-An eight-year struggle by Algeria to secure independence from French colonial control; the goal was finally achieved in 1962.

Atlantic Charter-The joint declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world: self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament.

Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)-Existentialist and feminist who has written on the psychology and social position of women.

Berlin Wall-Concrete barrier constructed by the Soviets in August 1961 between West Berlin and East Berlin to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West. (In 1990, the wall was torn down.)

Willy Brandt (1913- )Chancellor of West Germany in the late 1960s; he sought to improve relations with the states of Eastern Europe.

Leonid Brezhnev (1907-1982-Soviet leader who helped oust and then replace Khrushchev.

Brezhnev Doctrine-Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need.

Albert Camus (1913-1960) -French existentialist who stated that in spite of the general absurdity of human life, individuals could make rational sense out of their own existence through meaningful personal decision making.

Cold War-An intense conflict between the superpowers using all means short of military might to achieve their respective ends.

Common Market-Another name for the European Economic Community, which created a free-trade area among the Western European countries.

Council for Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon)-An economic alliance, founded in 1949, to coordinate the economic affairs of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries.

Decolonization-The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.

Detente-Reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations between the superpowers during Khrushchev's rule in the Soviet Union.

European Coal and Steel Community--Organized by Jean Monnet (1888-1979) it called for an integration of the coaland steel industries of France and West Germany. It finally added Italy and the Benelux states.

European Economic Community (Common Market) Organization, begun on January 1, 1958, including France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg). By 1966 the Common Market would eliminate all customs barriers between the countries, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of workers and capital.

European Free Trade Association-An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven-i.e., outside the Common Market; formed in 1959.

Existentialism-A label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy, stressing choice, freedom, decision, and anguish, and emerging strongly during and after the World War II years.

Fifth Republic- Government established in France in October 1958. The First Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804; the Second, from 1848 to 1852; the Third from 1875 to 1945; and the Fourth, from 1946 to 1958.

Free French-Supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in 1940. In 1944, de Gaulle's Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional government.

Alcide de Gasperi (1881-1954)-The leader of the Christian Democrats in Italy, he was committed to democracy and moderate social reform.

Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970}First president of the French Fifth Republic and former head of the Free French movement in World War II.

Glasnost--Gorbachev used the term toexplainhis new policy of "openness" in allowing russians more freedom to dissent.

Gulag-Forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political dissidents.

Hungarian Revolt (1956)-Attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break off military alliance with the Soviet Union.

Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) German existentialist seeing all people as equally co-responsible for the terrors and injustices of the world.

Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)-Soviet leader who denounced Stalin's rule and brought a temporary thaw in the superpowers' relations.

Marshall Plan-Program that advanced more than $ 11 billion for European recovery to sixteen Western nations from 1947 to 1953; the final cost to the United States was $20 billion.

Aldo Moro-Former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978.

Imre Nagy--(1896-1958) Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-Military alliance founded in 1949, between the United States and Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy; later, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined.

Boris Pasternak (1890-1960) Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era.

Peaceful coexistence-The thaw in cold war tensions between the superpowers.

Perestroika--Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" which included reducing the direct involvement of the Commuist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It ws a decentralization of economic planning and controls.

Potsdam Conference-The July-August 1945 meeting of Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee of Great Britain, at which disagreements arose over the permanent borders of Germany and free elections in East European countries. Stalin refused to hold free elections, in fear of anti-Soviet governments.

Prague Spring-The liberal reforms introduced by Alexander Dubcek, the Czechoslovak Communist Party secretary. On August 20, 1968, twenty thousand troops from the Soviet Union and its satellite countries occupied Prague to undo the reforms.

Red Brigade-Terrorist group committed to radical political and social change that claimed responsibility for the assassination of former Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978.

SALT I--1972 Treaty between America and Soviet Union whichlimitedthenumberof intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) at their existing levels for five years.

SALT II--Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on long-range missiles, bombers and nuclear warheads.

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)-French existentialist most famous for his statement that "existence precedes essence"-i.e., first we exist and then our decisions and choices shape our character or essence.

Schuman Plan-An international organization set up in 1952 to control and integrate all European coal and steel production; also known as the European Coal and Steel Community.

Solidarity--Polish political party (anti communism) lead by Lech Walesa wanted free elections for Poles.

Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1918-)-Russian author of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, a novel detailing life in a Stalinist concentration camp.

Margaret Thatcher--(b. 1925- ) Conservative British PrimeMinister andfirst woman to head a major European government.

Marshal Tito (Josip Broz) (1892-1980) Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence of his country from Soviet influence.

Treaty of Rome-Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (also known as the Common Market).

Truman Doctrine-Policy providing military aid to Greece and Turkey in an effort to contain Communism (1947-1948).

Vatican II-- Pope John XXIII called the conference which met in four sessions between 1962-65. The purpose was to bring the church up to date (aggiornamento).

Warsaw Pact-A military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations.

Zionism--Founded by Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) the Zionists sought the creation of a national homeland forthe Jews in Palestine. It was supported by the British Balfour Declaration during WWI but did not become a reality until 1948.