We live in the 20th cnetury which includes a lifestyle and a set of beliefs entirely different from those people who lived during the period we call the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution. In order to understand their beliers we must learn to think like people did nearly 300 years ago.


DIRECTIONS: Following are a series of statements (beliefs) which were common about 300 years ago. Read each statement and then decide if this was a belief held by people of the Middle Ages or people of the Enlightenment / Scientific Revolution period. On your paper mark either a M for Medieval or an S for the Scientific Age. Next to that write the person you believe actually made the statement. All statements are direct quotations (mostly translations) from original works and have definite answers. From your readings you should be able to figure out who most of the write are. Do not give up too easily. Think and try to make connections. (There will be a prize for the student with the most correct answers)


We will discuss the answers in class on Thursday. Be certain to bring both your list of quotations and your answers.




1. The heart has its reasons that the mind cannot know

2. A Creator began the universe and set certain laws in motion which cointinue to maintain order and balance in nature.

3. Continence is a greater good than marriage.

4. Man cannot learn without God's help.

5. Reason must be supported by experience.

6. A baby in a womb cannot think.

7. In order to study natural phenomena, conditions must be created which are not normal.

8. The only stable country is one in which all men are equal before the law.

9. The existence of God can be proven by the existence of our universe: A Creator is necessary.

10. God is so powerful that he can direct any evil to a good end.

11. In determining the answer to a question, we should proceed not from the authority of Scripture but from sense experience and necessary demonstrations.

12. Our knowledge is reveal to us by God.

13. The sun is at the center of the universe.

14. Women are inferior to men. (NOTE: Anita, reread this --and #38--carefully!)

15. We must be careful to give credit to the accomplishments of our ancestors before we praise our own accomplishments.

16. Our imperfections are evidence that the perfect God exists.

17. I know that I exist because I can think about my existence.

18. We are born without knowledge.

19. Human inderstanding is like a false mirror, which, recieving rays irregularly, distorts and discolors the nature of things by mingling its own nature with it.

20. The orbits of the planets are not perfect circles.

21. Knowledge from the past can help us answer contemporary questions.

22. The scriptures were written in simple form for ordinary people to understand; true understanding requires explanation beyond the words of the scriptures

23. The earth is at the centre of the universe.

24. Ideas originate in sensation and reflection--the mind cannot creat ideas by itself.

25. The heavens are perfect and unchanging.

26. We should strive for an understanding of the world not as we would like it to be, but as it actually is.

27. Truth is found in our waking moments rather than in our dreams.

28. We canunderstand only what we can observe.

29. The mind can create complex ideas from the simple ideas generated by sensation and reflection.

30. God would not have given us intelligence if he had not intended that we use this intelligence.

31. Christians know the true God and do not love the earth.

32. There are two modes of acquiring knowledge: namely reason and experience.

33. If woman was made from man, this was to show her oneness with him.

34. Since our senses deceive us, we must use our reason to arrive at the truth.

35. The sun rises in the morning and sets in the evening.

36. The simplest explanation is the best explanation.

37. Happiness or well-being cannot be assessed on the bassis of isolated incidents.

38. Women are inferior to men but are necessary for the producing of children.

39. Material possessions do not belong to the owner, but are common property to be shared by all.

40. Sin remains with the sinner.


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